By Ruby K. Payne
Humans in poverty face demanding situations almost unknown to these in center category or wealth--challenges from either seen and hidden resources. the truth of being terrible brings out a survival mentality, and turns awareness clear of possibilities taken with no consideration through every person else.
If you're employed with humans from poverty, a few knowing of ways various their international is from yours may be necessary. no matter if you're an educator--or a social, healthiness, or criminal prone professional--this leap forward booklet promises useful, real-world aid and counsel to enhance your effectiveness in operating with humans from all socioeconomic backgrounds. given that 1995 A Framework for realizing Poverty has guided millions of educators and different execs in the course of the pitfalls and boundaries confronted by means of all sessions, particularly the bad.
Carefully researched and filled with charts, tables, and questionaires, Framework not in simple terms files the evidence of poverty, it offers functional but compassionate innovations for addressing its effect on people's lives.
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Extra resources for A Framework for Understanding Poverty
Pp. 171-200 in Socicll Netulorks clrid Social S r i y p r t , edited by B. H. Gottlieb. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. White, Harrison C. 1992. I d r r i t i f y arid Cor7fral. cl/T/zeory qf Socicll Actiorz. Princeton: Princeton University Press. , S. A. Boorman, and Ronald L. Breiger. 1976. ”Social Structure from Multiple Networks: 1. ” Ariicricclii 10r rfzclI cf Sociolnpy 81:730 - 80. This page intentionally left blank 3 Structural Holes versus Network Closure as Social Capital Ronald S. Burt This chapter is about two network structures that have been argued to create social capital.
The network around Tames is slightly more constrained than average (C = 31). Association between performance and network constraint is a critical test for the two leading network mechanisms argued to provide social capital. More constrained networks span fewer structural holes, which means less social capital according to the hole argument. r f networks t h t span strtictliral holes are the source of social capital, then perforiizaizce shozild h w e IZ rzegatizv association w i t h network constraint.
Cohesive contacts (contacts strongly connected to each other) are likely to have similar information and therefore provide redundant information benefits. Structurally equivalent contacts (contacts who link a manager to the same third parties) have the same sources of information and therefore provide redundant information benefits. Robert and James in Figure 1 have the same volume of connections, six strong ties and one weak tie, but Robert has something more. James is tied to people within group B, and through them to friends of friends all within group B, so James is well informed about cluster B activities.