By Mark Ptashne
The 1st version of Mark Ptashne's 1986 booklet describing the foundations of gene rules in phage lambda turned a vintage in either content material and shape, environment a typical of readability and special prose that has hardly been bettered. This version is a reprint of the unique textual content, including a brand new bankruptcy updating the tale to 2004. one of the awesome new advancements are contemporary findings on long-range interactions among proteins certain to generally separated websites at the phage genome, and a close description of the way gene activation works.
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Additional info for A Genetic Switch: Phage Lambda Revisited
What factors drive the system toward lysis or lysogeny? We do not have a complete understanding of these matters but we can construct a plausible scenario. Briefly put, the decision is effected by a single protein—CII. 10 summarizes the situation. If Cll is highly active the infecting phage lysogenizes; otherwise it grows lytically. Once the decision is made, all other steps of λ growth are determined by one or the other of λ’s developmental programs. 10. The lysis-lysogeny decision. Host proteases regulate the level of activity of CII protein.
19. Repressor is constantly being synthesized as the cells grow and divide, whereas the cro gene remains silent. If the repressor concentration increases—as might happen, for example, were cell division temporarily inhibited—repressor would bind also to OR3 to turn its own gene off. As the cell began dividing again and the repressor concentration dropped to the proper level the cl gene would resume functioning, providing more repressor. Thus a constant level of repressor is maintained in the cell, despite fluctuations in growth rate.
Case 3—Induction In the third case, induction of a lysogen, the phage must make both Int and Xis to ensure its escape from the chromosome following induction. But because we are witnessing the onset of lytic growth we cannot depend on Cll to provide the requisite Int. The solution is as follows: transcription from PL once again produces a mRNA encoding both Int and Xis, but in this case the sib region is not copied onto the end of the mRNA. 13, the process of integration of the phage chromosome separates sib from int and so the mRNA originating at PL bears no sib sequence.