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Richard junior first served in the colonial legislature in 1697, and over the next 90 years no less than 10 of his sons and grandsons followed him into that body. Their dominance over two counties, reflected in numerous offices such as justice of the peace and vestry- 30 A HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES man, was cemented by wide marriage alliances with other local magnate families. However even the Tilghmans were dwarfed in wealth and power by the Carrolls of Carrollton. 4 million, and landholdings of 57 000 acres.

As Thoreau recognized in the 1850s, 'Prairie is a French word, as Sierra is a Spanish one', and American travellers in the west, even at that late date, needed the guidance of their voyageur or coureur de bois. BRITISH SETTLEMENT Especially in the west, American expansion from the late eighteenth century built upon a Latin and Catholic substratum. On the east coast, several other European powers had long claimed a corner of the New World. In 1624 the Dutch developed a trading centre on Manhattan island, the site of New Amsterdam.

The Quaker settlement extended into parts of what later became Delaware and New Jersey. The settlement was an immediate success: by July 1683, 50 vessels had arrived to raise the population to 3 000, an influx parallelled only by the early immigration to Massachusetts Bay. In 1682 Penn's 'Great Law' for the new colony offered tolerance to 'all persons who confess and acknowledge the one almighty and eternal God to be the creator, upholder and 20 A HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES ruler of the world', with the proviso of orderly behaviour.

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