By Berdanier, Carolyn D.; Berdanier, Lynnette A.; Zempleni, Janos
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Extra resources for Advanced Nutrition : Macronutrients, Micronutrients, and Metabolism
In addition, increases in energy requirement may be due to the increased energy needed to support protein synthesis. Protein synthesis is highly dependent on energy intake. New proteins are needed for tissue repair and for the inflammatory and immunologic responses of the body to infection or injury or both. If the diet is inadequate, the synthesis of these proteins occurs at the expense of muscle protein. Amino acids not used for protein synthesis are deaminated and the resulting ammonia converted to urea.
As mentioned in the beginning of this section, the basal heat production or oxygen consumption is usually measured in the postabsorptive state. This usually means a measurement made before breakfast and it also usually means that the metabolic fuel mix is that of glucose (from glycogen) plus fatty acids (from the fat depots). Other species may have different patterns. For example, the rat, a nocturnal animal will have been very active during the night and will rest during the day. The day–night cycle in RQ will therefore be reversed.
They found that identical (monozygotic) twins are more nearly alike in these responses than are siblings or nonidentical (dizygotic) twins. These and other workers34 have also examined the home environment with respect to body fatness. This work attempts to answer the question of whether people become overly fat because of environmental influences such as the daily coaching by the parents to eat or not eat. Most revealing in this respect are the studies of monozygotic and dizygotic twins reared by their biological parents or by adoptive parents.