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By Suna F. Kiraç

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Introduction Since the first serendipitous selective coronary angiography was performed by pediatric cardiologist Dr. , 1959), invasive coronary angiography has become well established as the diagnostic gold standard for coronary artery disease. Coronary angiography provides definitive information of “luminology” (radiographic outline using a contrast agent) of the coronary arteries. It is the standard with which other diagnostic modalities are compared. Millions are performed annually worldwide.

Thus, the next question is whether TRAIL levels also inversely reflect early atherosclerotic lesions. We therefore examined the association between TRAIL and intima-media thickness (IMT), which is a surrogate marker for atherosclerotic changes, using ultrasonography in 416 diabetic patients. , 2011). Interestingly, when we focused on subjects with macrovascular diseases such as CAD, cerebrovascular diseases, and arteriosclerosis obliterans, there was a significant and reproducible association between TRAIL levels and carotid IMT.

Therefore, two contradictory steps should be considered when determining the biological effects of TRAIL besides simple apoptotic signaling. First, TRAIL has death receptors (TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2) and antagonized decoy receptors (TRAIL-R3, TRAIL-R4, and OPG) at the cell surface level. Second, these death receptors can counteract apoptotic signaling at the intracellular level in certain contexts. Thus, TRAIL signaling is very complicated. Cysteine proteases Transmembrane Domain 1 18 Receptor Binding Region 38 NH2 114 281 COOH cleavage Cys 230 Soluble TRAIL Zn Formation of homotrimer TRAIL consists of 281 amino acids with a transmembrane domain that separates the short intracellular and extracellular domains.

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