By Ph. Hartl (auth.), F. Toselli (eds.)
Within the framework of Ispra classes, a direction on "Applications of distant Sensing to Agrometeorology" used to be held from April sixth to tenth, 1987 on the Joint study Centre of the ecu groups, Ispra Italy. the aim of the path was once to familiarize scientists, energetic in Agrometeorology and comparable fields, with distant sensing thoughts and their strength functions of their respective disciplines. traditional flooring investigations in a number of fields of average sciences resembling hydrology, pedology and agrometeorology could be supple mented via a number tools carried through airborne or earth orbiting structures. the previous few years, specifically, have noticeable many advancements during this admire and a growing to be quantity of knowledge can now be derived not just from devoted earth assets satellites similar to the LANDSAT and notice, but in addition from different systems comparable to METEOSAT and the sequence of NOAA-TIROS. destiny structures (ERS-l, house Station, etc.) with their complicated sensors will extra increase the variety of purposes open to the investigators. using those info resources, including box investigations, can lead, at a discounted fee, to a greater characterization of the spatial and temporal homes of common systems.
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Extra resources for Applications of Remote Sensing to Agrometeorology: Proceedings of a Course held at the Joint Research Centre of the Commission of the European Communities in the Framework of the Ispra-Courses, Ispra, Varese, Italy, 6–10 April 1987
Sun-synchronous orbit (angle orbit plane/direction earth-sun = c onstant). o Nadir of Nodes ~clination ',..... ----6~-\ Geostationary Satellite - - - ... Trajectory During 1 hour ---+ Equator Movement During 1 hour Fig ure 5. Orbit of a geostationary satellite. - 39 - _ 320 em. ~ METEOSAT 1 NADIR 0 L::~: ~~ 0- PROGRESSION Figure 6. 3. 1 o ROTATION Attitude of some satellites. SATELLITES First Generation satellites Table I indicates the main characteristics of the geostationary observation satellites.
Earth observation programmes; class of orbits. Various requirements (global coverage, constant viewing range and scene illumination conditions, standard synoptic observation times and avoidance of diurnal aliasing) lead, for an altitude of 500-1000 km, to circular or sun-synchronous orbits which are retrograde with inclination between 97 and 100 degrees (ESA documentation). "Afternoon" Node "Morning" Descending Node I Figure 14b. Earth observation programmes; class of orbits. The need of data up to 4 times/day leads to two platforms in "crossed" orbits with identical instruments, with the benefit of additional redundancy in the observation system (ESA documentation).
Compared with the line - 26 - LANDSAT 1\\ I . I \ I I 1 M MIRROR SC S S : ANS ~ITH 1 ,. 6 2 H z Al', FL I TUIlE 2 . 56 II . 6 2 I :4 7 4 M 6 sD lS O R S: A7 4 / 6 : 79 M / / P IX E L S : ,6 5 x 10' /7 9 / Slll~INn \~~--= M IN tt O f< O N ltl "" t ,~ • •, • ===---- , 2 • • • _ 27 - - 2 ,0 0 h , / /' -- ( Figure 7. Conical scanning. scanning mechanism we have various differences. Each point of the image surface is mapped twice, once by looking at it forward and once aft. This allows a stereomapping.