By Hervi Moulin
Difficulties of reasonable department, equitable cost-sharing, department of a joint profit, or the alternative of a very democratic vote casting rule are wide-spread topics of dispute in technologically complicated democracies. This e-book presents a entire and unified presentation of those technically heterogeneous matters which are associated by means of universal axioms.
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Sound economics warns against this potential source of error. I 1 *. I 1 What is true for the individual (or subcomponent) may not be true for the group (or the whole). If you stand up for an exciting play during a football game, you will be better able to see. But what happens if everyone stands up at the same time? Will everyone be better able to see? The answer is, of course, no. Thus, what is true for a single individual does not necessarily apply to the group as a whole. When everyone stands up, the view for individual spectators fails to improve; in fact, it may even become worse.
People all over the world struggled 50, 60, and 70 hours a week to obtain the basic necessities of life-food, clothing, and shelter. Manual labor was the major source of income. Animals provided the means of transportation. Tools and machines were primitive by today’s standards. As the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes stated in the seventeenth century, life was “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and ~ h o r t . ” ~ Throughout much of South America, Africa, and Asia, economic conditions today continue to make life difficult.
The “incentives matter” postulate also explains why a person would be unlikely to vote for a political candidate who, if elected, would raise taxes to fund a new government program he or she didn’t like very much. Most errors in economic reasoning occur because people overlook this postulate or fail to apply it consistently. With economic applications generally focusing on people trying to satisfy material desires, casual observers often argue that incentives matter only in cases of human selfishness.