By E. Gwinner (auth.), Professor Dr. Eberhard Gwinner (eds.)
E. GWINNER! The phenomenon of poultry migration with its huge scale dimensions has attracted the eye of naturalists for hundreds of years. all over the world billions of birds go away their breeding grounds each autumn emigrate to components with seasonally extra prefer capable stipulations. lots of those migrants go back and forth purely over a couple of hundred kilo meters yet others disguise distances resembling the circumference of the earth. between those long-distance migrants are a number of billion birds that invade Africa each autumn from their West and important Palaearctic breeding components. within the Americas and in Asia the scope of poultry migration is of an identical value. simply as outstanding because the numbers of birds are their achievements. they must deal with the large lively expenditures of long-distance flying. relatively whereas crossing oceans and deserts that don't let replenishment of depleted fats reserves. they must accurately time the onset and finish of migrations. either on a regular and annual foundation. and eventually. they need to orient their migratory pursuits in house to arrive their species- or population-specific wintering and breeding grounds, without reference to the variable weather conditions alongside their migratory routes.
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Additional resources for Bird Migration: Physiology and Ecophysiology
Ardea 75: 175-187 Kessel B (1984) Migration of sandhill cranes. Crus canadensis. in east-central Alaska. with routes through Alaska and western Canada. Can Field-Nat 98:279292 Kessel B. Gibson DD (1980) Status and distribution of Alaska birds. Stud Avian Bioi I, COS. R. R. Herter 40 King JG (1970) The swans and geese of Alaska's Arctic slope. Wildfowl 21: 11-17 Kistchinski. AA (1979) Migrations of birds of eastern Europe and northern Asia. Nauka, Moscow Kokhanov V (1983) Peculiarities of the summer migration of the common scoter in different regions of the White Sea.
Yenisey. Lena. Indigirka. Kolyma. and Anadyr in Siberia. and the Kobuk. Noatak. and Colville in Alaska (AOU 1983; Dement'ev and Gladkov 1951. 1952: Cramp and Simmons 1983) (Fig. I). 4 Molt Migration Molt migrations of post-breeding or non-breeding waterfowl from Arctic or sub-Arctic nesting areas to specific molting areas were reviewed by Salomon sen (1968). Some notable examples of molt migrations in the Nearctic are the southwestward molt migration of eiders past Point Barrow. Alaska (Thompson and Person 1963: Johnson 1971: Timson 1976).
Nevertheless, there has been a general reluctance by ornithologists to accept the possibility of migration from New World wintering areas to the Arctic during the Pleistocene. According to Irving (1960, 1972), Nearctic birds could not have migrated across the vast expanses of ice to reach refugia at high latitudes in Alaska and Canada. Similarly, Mead (1983) stated that there is today" ... R. R. Herter 24 \ " . r Fig. 1. Map showing major bird migration corridors to and from the Arctic. We have defined the Arctic as northern high latitude tundra and marine habitats that are snow and ice covered for most of the year (Remmert 1980).