By Ashwin Desai, Goolam Vahed
"In 1960, apartheid's planners created the 'Indian' township of Chatworth, evicting humans from confirmed neighbourhoods round Durban and forcibly settling them into the grid of a contemporary racial ghetto. Making domestic inside of this structure of exclusion, alongside streets with out names, tens of millions of recent citizens commence development new lives and new groups, constructing an city house with a different cultural vibrancy born of creativity and monetary struggle."--P.  of cover. Read more...
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Extra resources for Chatsworth : the making of a South African township
The underpinnings of the American welfare system, however, have created contradictions and stresses within the design and the functioning of the system itself. Both law and social science have heavily influenced the ideals behind social welfare programs, the discourses framing social problems, and the structure of the social welfare system itself. Past welfare policies, programs, and motivations echo in today’s welfare politics. That history is outlined below. |â•… 17 From Charitable Aid to Government-Sponsored Relief In the United States, early efforts to aid poor families grew from efforts to create morally upright mothers who would then raise morally upright children.
From the first moment of his bid for presidential election in 1980, Ronald Reagan used anecdotes about welfare queens to exemplify everything he believed wrong with government programs—excessive spending on domestic programs and misuse of government money. Reagan apparently merged the identities of Taylor, the Chicago “welfare queen,” and Williams, the Cadillac-driving “Queen of Welfare” from Compton, into one persona that starred in an often-used anecdote. And he regularly exaggerated the number of aliases so that his welfare queen had a hundred of them (Broder 1981).
In the mid-1960s, government policy makers and the legal profession collaborated to improve the social welfare system. An Advisory Council on Public Welfare, appointed by the secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare under a directive of the 1962 Public Welfare Amendments, issued a report to the secretary in June 1966. The report recommended that the federal government establish nationwide standards for welfare provision, that financial need be the sole measure of welfare eligibility, that social services become widely available to the poor, and that legally enforceable rights become attached to welfare payments (Advisory Council on Public Welfare 1966, xiixiv).