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Myopia, the commonest illness of the attention, impacts eighty% of the inhabitants of a few nations. even supposing its foundation is still doubtful, contemporary improvement of animal types have approved checks of speculation as to myopia's origins. The symposium complaints disguise basic development of the attention together with the jobs of peptide components, metabolism and accomodation, research of the deficiencies that bring about myopia and different refractive problems.


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In congenital glaucoma, where the sclera is not fully developed, the intraocular pressure by itself can elongate the eye (Hoskins & Kass 1989). One of the theories of myopia is that it is an arrested glaucoma. You cannot easily measure the intraocular pressure while the lids are sutured, but you could give an antiglaucoma treatment to lower the pressure in the eye while the lids are sutured and see if this has an effect on elongation. Also, what would happen if you sutured both eyes? Accommodation is a centrally mediated mechanism so even if you close one eye, that eye would accommodate when the open eye accommodates.

We do not know whether the increase in the level of VIP results from enhanced synthesis of the peptide or decreased release; the physiological properties of the amacrine cells that contain VIP are also unclear. Finally, the most important unresolved issue is whether VIP is the molecule-or one of the molecules-causing postequatorial expansion of the closed eye and myopia. In collaboration with K. F. Melia and P. B. Dews (Melia et a1 1989), we have been training juvenile stumptailed macaques to detect minute letter differences on a computer monitor for periods of 2-3 hours daily.

Vision Res 28:947-958 Leventhal AG, Ault SJ, Vitek DJ, Shou T 1989 Extrinsic determinants of retinal ganglion cell development in primates. J Comp Neurol 286:170-189 Merigan WH 1989 Chromatic and achromatic vision of macaques: role of the P pathway. J Neurosci 9:776-783 Nathan J , Kiely PM, Crewther S, Crewther DP 1985 Disease-associated visual image degradation and spherical refractive errors in children. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 62:680-688 Norcia AM, Tyler CW 1985 Spatial frequency sweep VEP: visual acuity during the first year of life.

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