By Thomas T. Warner, Susan B. Bressman
Of the typical circulate problems, dystonia may be the main misunderstood and least clinically famous, because the scientific signs manifested in sufferers with quite a few dystonic issues are super diversified. With chapters contributed by means of specialists from each side of the Atlantic, this textbook offers a finished overview of the pathogenesis of dystonia, an outline of the class of many of the dystonic issues, and a precis of the newest advancements in therapy, together with rising pharmacological remedies and use of botulinum toxin.
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Extra info for Clinical Diagnosis and Management of Dystonia
J Clin Psychiatry 2006; 67: 327–8. 87. Lohmann T, Ferbert A, Ebel H. A unique case of tardive dystonia induced by short-term therapy with perazin. Pharmacopsychiatry 1995; 28: 263–5. 88. Fdhil H, Krebs MO, Bayle F et al. Risperidone-induced tardive dystonia: a case of torticollis. Encephale 1998; 24: 581–3. 89. Factor SA, Mathews MK. Persistent extrapyramidal syndrome with dystonia and rigidity caused by combined metoclopramide and prochlorperazine therapy. South Med J 1991; 84: 626–8. 90. Adityanjee YAA, Jampala VC, Mathews T.
Risch N, de Leon D, Ozelius L et al. Genetic analysis of idiopathic torsion dystonia in Ashkenazi Jews and their recent descent from a small founder population. Nat Genet 1995; 9: 152–9. Ozelius LJ, Kramer P, Moskowitz CB et al. Human gene for torsion dystonia located on chromosome 9q32-34. Neuron 1989; 2: 1427–34. Ozelius LJ, Hewett J, Page CE et al. The early-onset torsion dystonia gene (DYT1) encodes an ATP-binding protein. Nat Genet 1997; 17: 40–8. Valente EM, Warner TT, Jarman PR et al. The role of primary torsion dystonia in Europe.
In addition, even for the common focal forms of primary torsion dystonia, such as cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis), blepharospasm, writer’s cramp, and other limb dystonias which do not appear to have a clear genetic basis, population and family studies have found evidence for a genetic contribution to their etiology. 4. The molecular classification is somewhat complex and confusing and contains mapped loci, cloned genes including primary dystonia, dystonia-plus syndromes (dopa-responsive dystonia, myoclonus-dystonia syndrome, and rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism) and one heredodegenerative condition (X-linked dystoniaparkinsonism).