By Lucy J. Robertson
Although well known as a tremendous waterborne pathogen, Cryptosporidium spp. is also transmitted by means of infection of nutrients. an identical homes of this protozoan parasite that suggest that water is a wonderful transmission car also are vital for foodborne transmission. those comprise the low infective dose, the excessive variety of oocysts which are excreted, and the robustness of those transmission levels. in spite of the fact that, many extra outbreaks of waterborne cryptosporidiosis were stated than foodborne outbreaks. this is often most likely partially because of epidemiological tracing being even more tough for foodborne outbreaks than waterborne outbreaks, and the variety of individuals uncovered to an infection frequently being fewer. however, the aptitude significance of foodborne transmission is progressively being famous, and quite a lot of varied foodstuffs were linked to these outbreaks which were recorded. also, different factors suggest that the potential of foodborne transmission is changing into of accelerating significance: those contain the expansion of overseas meals alternate, a present pattern for consuming uncooked or very frivolously cooked meals, and the increase in small-scale natural farms, the place there the chance for infection of vegetable vegetation with animal feces should be greater.
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Extra resources for Cryptosporidium as a Foodborne Pathogen
However, detection of contamination of vehicles of infection with Cryptosporidium oocysts, whether water or food, relies entirely on isolating and identifying either the Cryptosporidium oocysts themselves, or DNA from the Cryptosporidium oocysts, on the contamination vehicle. It should be noted that the concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts in a faecal sample from an infected individual is likely to be considerably higher than the concentration of oocysts on a contaminated potential vehicle of transmission, and thus detection in food or water is likely to be much more difficult.
A comparative trial of different DNA extraction kits for Cryptosporidium oocysts seeded into washes from raspberries and basil indicated that some kits might give better results (Shields et al. 2013), although the limit of detection was nevertheless relatively high. Thus, although these research reports indicate the possibility for using molecular methods in such surveys, until more comprehensive research comparing detection methodologies is undertaken and successfully adopted by different laboratories, it is probable that IFAT will continue to be the detection method of choice for the immediate future for analysing food products for contamination with Cryptosporidium oocysts.
In the study from Poland (Rzeżutka et al. 2010) although IFAT was used for detection, downstream molecular processing was used on oocysts retrieved from the microscope slides, and the oocysts from the celery sample were identified as C. parvum. Although subtyping at the gp60 locus was attempted it was not successful. One point made in this study is that the use of an internal process control to determine recovery efficiency abrogates the possibility of downstream genotyping. Thus the investigators must be sure of the intention of their survey and use the methods that are most appropriate; it should be noted that methods that are best suited for obtaining background survey information may be less suitable for investigating contamination of produce in an outbreak situation.