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By J. S. Dugdale

This article provides a finished method of entropy, spotting that it's a inspiration usually misunderstood. starting with an historic classical standpoint, a statistical view then follows to offer a extra actual photograph.

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This means that a situation which might produce work can be irretrievably lost by natural heat flow. Let me sum up the situation at this stage. (i) A heat engine requires a temperature difference in order to operate. e. to restore thermal equilibrium. (iii) Any temperature difference can, in principle, be used to produce work. (iv) Temperature differences tend to disappear spontaneously by heat conduction without producing useful work. These ideas form the basis of Carnot's thinking (although perhaps with a slightly different emphasis since at the time he wrote he was making use of the caloric theory, even though he had serious doubts about its validity).

E. that no heat engine with an efficiency greater than a Carnot 33 Entropy and its physical meaning engine can exist. From a similar argument it follows that all Carnot engines working between the same two temperatures have the same efficiency~ If this were not so it would be possible, by suitably coupling a pair of engines whose efficiencies were different, to violate the second law of thermodynamics. We have established, therefore, that the thermodynamic efficiency of a Carnot engine depends only on the temperatures between which it works and not on the working substance.

Although the heat entering the substance depends on the path followed by the substance between A and B, the entropy change does not. This result is so important and, at first sight, so surprising that it may be helpful to illustrate it with a specific example. In this, we shall see directly that while f ttqrev is indeterminate until the path is known, f aqrev/T is determined entirely by the beginning and end points of the process. The simplest example which demonstrates the change is provided by the behaviour of a perfect gas.

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