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This makes its density seem even higher than it actually is. Denature SUMMARY The GC content of a natural DNA can vary from less than 25% to almost 75%. This can have a strong effect on the physical properties of the DNA, in particular on its melting temperature and density, each of which increases linearly with GC content. The melting temperature (Tm) of a DNA is the temperature at which the two strands are half-dissociated, or denatured. Low ionic strength, high pH, and organic solvents also promote DNA denaturation.

Thus, a change (mutation) in a gene’s sequence may cause a corresponding change in the protein product. All living things are grouped into three domains: bacteria, eukaryota, and archaea. The archaea resemble bacteria physically, but their molecular biology more closely resembles that of eukaryota. , and B. McClintock. 1931. A correlation of cytological and genetical crossing-over in Zea mays. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 17:492–97. E. 1968. The discovery of DNA. Scientific American 218 (June):78–88.

They decreed that the amounts of adenine and thymine were equal and so were the amounts of guanine and cytosine. 13 ). So Watson and Crick postulated that adenine must always pair with thymine, and guanine with cytosine. This way, the double-stranded DNA will be uniform, composed of very similarly shaped base pairs, regardless of the unpredictable sequence of either DNA strand by itself. This was their crucial insight, and the key to the structure of DNA. 14. The curving sides of the ladder represent the sugar–phosphate backbones of the two DNA strands; the rungs are the base pairs.

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